Issue 2, Spring Religion, after all, is a powerful constituent of cultural norms and values, and because it addresses the most profound existential issues of human life e. These choices, in turn, determine their attitudes toward conflict and violence.
The following is an excerpt from the report: Policy Implications for Canada" prepared by Dr.
This report studies polygyny one man married to multiple wives as practiced in Asian, Middle Eastern and African countries. Some of the observations may be similar to that found within Fundamentalist Mormon U.
However, these observations are unlikely to be replicated in egalitarian polygamous marriages in Western countries. The Practice of and Reasons for Polygamy: Polygamy was permitted in most parts of the world at one time, but there has been a move away from the practice.
Increase the probability of children, particularly when a wife is barren or gives birth to female children only. Increase the labour supply within a kinship network. Perhaps provide sexual satisfaction to men, particularly in societies with lengthy post-partum sexual taboos Macfarlane Polygamy is also commonly found in closed cultures where open displays of courtship and affection are shunned.
As well, polygamy has historically been used in place of divorce in countries with limited grounds for divorce and high thresholds for proving those grounds Marasinghe Social scientists have given various theoretical explanations for the practice of polygamy.
They argued that monogamy is the result of a compromise among men usually following democratic development, whereby the wealthy, powerful men surrender polygamous practices and multiple wives in exchange for political support from poor men. Where resource inequalities are great among men, women will choose to marry polygamously.
Where inequalities are comparatively low, women will chose to marry monogamously. This theory is female-empowering and functional. It recognizes polygamy or monogamy as rational choices to be made in accordance with social determinants, such as resource inequality. However, it has been criticized for failing to account for the political reality that undermines this choice.
In addition, the politics of inequity underlying the practice of polygamy where there are child brides, for example are often misattributed to the institution of polygamy. Morrison and Jutting The extent of the opportunity to seek sexual variety may vary, however, with social circumstances, such as the degree to which women are available and how costly they are as wives their economic value.
High status males mate more often and leave more offspring, a pattern that is found widely throughout mammalian species.
According to Alexander, this socially imposed monogamy is a by-product of the large nation state. Bretschneider suggested that polygamy is a multi-dimensional phenomenon.
He argued that it is not possible to isolate socio-cultural, economic, demographic or environmental conditions as singular causes. Rather, access and control over resources, as well as the mobility of women across borders, are significant influences.
The research is not conclusive on the impact on children of growing up in polygamous families. They found that children of actually polygamous marriages were at greater risk of experiencing marital conflict, family violence and family disruptions, marital distress, particularly that related to high levels of unhappiness of women in polygamous unions, absence of the father and financial stress.
However, some of the studies reviewed found that children, particularly older children in a family, demonstrated resilience in dealing with these risk factors.
The researchers concluded that cultural factors play a role in determining the extent to which the risk factors associated with polygamy negatively affect children.
The researchers suggested that a culture in which polygamy is not only tolerated but valued, where the larger family size associated with polygamy is a signifier of social status, and where women are respected for their role in producing children, may help children deal better with the risk factors associated with polygamy.
Polygamy has long been associated with gender inequality by Western commentators, 14 and this remains the case. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, which monitors compliance of states parties to the Convention, issued a general recommendation in that included the following.
The Committee notes with concern that some States parties, whose constitutions guarantee equal rights, permit polygamous marriage in accordance with personal or customary law. This violates the constitutional rights of women, and breaches the provisions of article 5 a of the Convention.
In one study of and by Sudanese women, the researchers concluded: Women do not like polygamy but cannot do anything about it.
Divorce is the de facto right of men in the Sudan, whatever the behaviour of the husband. Only one of the respondents tried to gain a divorce from her husband and she could not make the legal system work in her favour and so gave up.
Men can and do divorce women when they want too, although this was comparatively rare among our interviewees. The fact that men can take another wife or divorce their existing wife is a source of insecurity and anxiety for women and helps to ensure their adherence to conservative social norms in areas like reproduction, circumcision, work, etc.
Social scientists studying various societies often reiterate that the practice of polygyny leads to women being oppressed, threatened or disempowered.With member countries, staff from more than countries, and offices in over locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, and European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Nov 08, · Eastern vs Western Philosophy. but also the school of thought that governs the major societies in the Eastern and Western part of the globe.
if we talk about philosophy, we talk about a school of thoughts. And if we connect it with our topic, it differs and comes with the realities, problems, and situations of certain people like, in /5(9).
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In his analysis of Protestantism and the rise of Capitalism, Max Weber asserted that Protestantism: compared to Eastern religions, Western religions are: deity based. With the understanding that societies and organizations are structures of expectations (social contracts), see Vol.
2: The Conflict Helix (Chapters 30, 31, 33 and 34) for theoretical and empirical analysis of types of societies and political systems, and Vol.
1: The Dynamic Psychological Field for structures of expectations within states. Riveting Rescue of Ethnic Conflict Analysis from Taboo, Bias The following review is on vetconnexx.com; posted November 11, Reviewed by Anthony Hilton .